Thursday, July 5, 2018

Introduction

                                         (Copyright)

  What would look better, and be better, on our farms than stables, turnip houses, piggeries, etc. constructed of materials which would not perish in ages, and which could be obtained and put up at an expense within the ready of almost every independent farmer! The stone must be picked up at all events and we might as well put them together for a building.  -- Genesee Farmer, January 13, 1838

The Cobblestone House on the Hill


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This Greek Revival House near Smyrna, is located at 630 Chenango County Route 14, Smyrna. "John F. Billings built on his farm in 1850 a large and commodious cobblestone house, which was then said to be the finest house in the county. It is also said to be the only house of its kind in the county."P. 467, History of Chenango and Madison Counties, New York" by James H. Smith. Published by D. Mason & Co., Syracuse, N.Y. 1880.
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Comments, suggestions and photos and information are welcome. Contact Richard Palmer at Railroad@twcny.rr. com. This is an on-going project.  To enlarge the image click mouse on photos.
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         Did cobblestone masons come from the Erie Canal?
                            By David Hanna (PhD)*         

    This claim has been been made and repeated often since the 1960s. While it would seem to fit more or less time-wise, it actually doesn’t really hold water in terms of a skill set or job opportunities available in their field.
     Building cobblestone houses is undoubtedly a very special skill set, even an art form. One would classify it as "folk art" really, but still a very sophisticated type of folk art. Just the skill and imagination required to select and arrange rounded stones in the various decorative arrangements as these master craftsmen did, required both incredible talent and much imagination. They must have been the cream of the crop in terms of the building crafts. It is incredibly fussy work, a true art form. 
    A canal stone mason is someone completely different. He is part of an early industrial craft where there was much demand for canal locks, aqueducts and viaducts in the nascent transportation industry, not to mention giant stone factories and shop buildings. This skill set involved a chain of craftsmen working on major projects : a stone block cutter, a stone block trimmer, and a stone block mason, using limestone exclusively. The latter craftsmen used cranes and pulleys, engineering drawings and supervision, and of course hydraulic cement in the case of canal locks. 
   There simply is no connection between the two skill sets, other than the fact that they were masons. Most likely, these stone masons would have gone on to other transportation and industrial projects elsewhere, such as the plentiful factory buildings that resulted from the Erie Canal building, or more logically the surge of canal lock building that went on in New York State’s branch canal system or the Pennsylvania’s Main Line canal in the 1830s and 1840s, amongst others, even into the 1850s. In other words, these canal masons had more than enough work to do after 1825 in their field of expertise.
    This brings up the second powerful argument against the transfer of canal stone masons to cobblestone building masons is that the 1830s and 1840s represent the peak of cobblestone building. This period also represents the peak of New York State branch canal stone masonry work, followed by the huge doubling and lengthening of locks, plus big aqueduct construction on the Erie Canal in the 1840s and 1850s. How could these so-called same stone masons be employed on two major local fronts simultaneously, focussing on specific canal projects while scattered across hill and dale in the surrounding countryside? The canal to house transfer theory simply does not hold water at all if one thinks about it a bit. The canal stone masons had more canal work than they could handle from 1825 to 1860, a full lifetime career in fact.
    One is tempted to be facetious here and suggest that if you approached an Erie Canal stone mason in 1825, showed him a pile of nice cobblestones and asked him to build you a  house with them, he would probably have picked up a few cobbles and thrown them at you along with a few choice swear words. It is time to definitively jettison this bad theory for once and for all. It has been mindlessly repeated far too long already. Let’s bury it under a cobblestone grave monument !
                           'Native' and 'Immigration' Theories
   So where did the cobblestone masons come from then? Two more probable theories suggest themselves to us. We could call one the Native theory and the other the Immigrant theory. 
   The Native theory, held by many and yet to be proven, is that native-born house masons from New England, New Jersey or Pennsylvania, all census-proven sources for migrants to Upstate New York in the early 19th century, areas where fieldstone houses were abundant, somehow became interested in the plentiful cobblestones found in heaps of glacial till in Upstate New York (where the continental glaciers halted 20,000 years ago); and the even more perfectly rounded cobblestones found along the southern shores of Lake Ontario.
   Intrigued by the plentiful source, these native-born fieldstone artisanal house builders experimented with the cobblestones and learned how to master this new technique using the smaller more rounded stones. But it would have been a skill set that developed locally because of the plentiful availability of the resource (well-rounded cobbles). This theory at least is plausible. Only a census tracking of the known cobblestone masons to these migration sources might lend this theory some credibility.
   The Immigration theory is not really known, but refers to the origin of cobblestone building in England. This is a regional vernacular masonry technique germane to the Essex and Sussex regions in south-east England. These people had been practicing this skill for centuries (same source : glacial till at the edge of the continental ice sheet full of rounded stones). It is also known from the census research that after the War of 1812 (starting in 1815), there was a surge of migration from England to the US and Canada, many arriving directly, others crossing the very permeable border along the St. Lawrence River. In other words, British immigrants were encouraged to come to Canada, especially in light of the War of 1812, but once arrived, you couldn’t stop them from passing into the United States where economic opportunities were far greater, especially in neighboring New York. This immigration leakage is well documented in Canadian migration literature.
   This theory also has yet to be proven and can only be run to ground by detailed census work proving that known cobblestone builders in New York were from England, via Canada or not. Of course, the truth could be a combination of the two, where perhaps some English masons started applying the technique and native-born masons quickly picked it up and pushed the technique beyond what had been done in England. Only pure research (a great thesis project suggests itself here) can run this theory to ground definitively. For now, they will serve as the most plausible sources for such a unique regional skill.
 What is undeniable is that cobblestone houses of the sophistication and development level found in this very localized part of New York State (Niagara to Utica, but mostly around Rochester area), is unique. It is a testament as to what an incredible place Upstate New York must have been in the 1810-1860 period and beyond. Besides those unique cobblestone houses, one also finds the best Greek Revival houses and the best Italian Villas (especially the Tuscan villa type) ever seen anywhere, and in huge quantity. And let's not forget that other unique building type, the octagon houses, which are almost exclusively from Upstate New York as well. These remarkable houses are a testament to the prosperity and dynamism of Upstate New York due largely to the success of the Erie Canal (1825) and the great railroad network established by all the inter-linked ancestors of the New York Central Railroad in 1841 (Boston and New York to Buffalo and beyond by the 1850s).
    The amazing house builders of New York State, during the 1815-1890 period deserve special recognition and perhaps none more so than the cobblestone masons of 1815-1860. This is a very precious heritage and every remaining cobblestone building, whether a house, barn, school, church, tavern, shop, hops dryer, railroad pumphouse, cemetery mausoleum or monument deserves special recognition and treatment. This blog, along with all the published work done on cobblestones since the 1960s, help this process along.
*Professor Hanna is a specialist in heritage studies, vernacular architecture and transportation history at the University of Quebec at Montreal.
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This cobblestone town house at 19 Sun Street, Lewes District, East Sussex, England. It is mid-19th century with painted brick quoins and window dressings. It has a slate roof and a painted fan light over the doorway. It is on the local historic buildings registry.                         


              
                             Beckwith House, 4573 Route 92, Cazenovia                      
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                  Brief History of Cobblestone Architecture 
                                   By Richard F. Palmer
    Ancient history tells us that the use of cobblestones dates back to the third century when the Romans used them to construct coastal fortifications.  Waterborne flint cobblestones were found in abundance in the English countryside. Natural lime mortars were perfected, but the stones were not laid in defined courses as was done in later periods.
   During the 11th century the Normans and Saxons built walls of flint cobbles or "flint heads")  in rough courses. During the Middle Ages came cobblestone streets, houses and outbuildings. Hundreds of years late American craftsmen, using the European precedent, refined and improved cobblestone building techniques that incorporated coursed, uncoursed, dual courses and heringbone patterns. Cobblestone  houses and other structures have long been a source of curiosity in central and western New York. for decades. There are more than 700 throughout New York State, ranging from Madison to Orleans counties. Cobblestone architecture is unique among the varied architectural styles to be found in this region. Records preserved by the Cobblestone Society of Childs, New York indicate that 90 percent of all cobblestone buildings are found within a 100-mile radius of Rochester. The late Carl Schmidt of Scottsville was the foremost authority on cobblestone construction, authoring many books and articles dating back to the 1930s.
    In his definitive book, "Cobblestone Masonry," Schmidt noted that because of innovative methods used by masons in this region, there developed a cobblestone masonry which distinguishes it from "all previous small-stone masonry."This includes European methods, as well as those used locally."
  A frequent question asked by the initiated has been  "Why are these old buildings confined to this region, who built them, how and when?" Generally the golden years of the cobblestone era were from about  about 1825, when the Erie Canal was opened, to the 1860s. There are, however, examples from a later period scattered here and there including Vermont, Canada and the Midwest. It is not known where or when the first cobblestone houses were built.  The earliest date stone found so far is 1832. 
   Why cobblestones? First, because they were plentiful. They had been rolled, rounded and left by the glacier that had passed over the region, As settlers came and cleared land for homes and fields, the glacier-carried stones had to be reckoned with. Along with using them to build miles of dry-stone wall fences, some were incorporated into building foundations and they gradually applied to above-ground construction. 
The rough field stones were used at first. As the skill and artistry of the masons developed, water-washed stones were gathered  from gravel pits. Then the builders looked to the shoreline of Lake Ontario where nearly 100 miles of washed stones of every form could be collected. We have dismissed the notion that many masons came into the region to work on the Erie Canal. It is an entirely different craft. Some records indicate the masons came from England.
   Each mason developed an individual style and technique, preparing his own mortar. The real secret of a good cobblestone wall depended on the quality of mortar used. Whether fact or fancy, it has been said that often if a visitor came around, a mason would stop everything and wait for them to pass so as not   have his special skills observed. The average mason was paid between $1 and $1.25 per day, plus board, for a 10-to-12-hour day. The work was tedious and exacting, more so as cobblestone structures became more elaborate.  Only the more wealthy landowners could afford them.
  The more that one studies the cobblestone era, the more interesting it becomes. Just driving around to difference sections to look at the variety of buildings and note their special architectural features can develop into an interesting pastime. There are more than 700 cobblestone structures in New York State, chiefly in 25 counties. Wayne County holds the record of more than 150  Monroe, Ontario and Orleans counties have about 100 each and the remaining counties from 20 to 50 each.  The best reference sources include Cobblestone Quest: Road Tours of New York's Historic Buildings by Rich Freeman; andCobblestone Landmarks of New York State by Gerda Peterich.  Unfortunately these are out of print but are available through some rare book dealers as well as on the Internet. Also they are on the shelves at many libraries in upstate New York. The Cobblestone Society has a museum and resource center on Route 104 in Childs, N.Y. Their website, which offers a wealth of information, is https://www.cobblestonemuseum.org. Many local historical societies have published booklets and brochures offering self-guided tours of historic homes that include cobblestone houses. This blog is a random look at cobblestone structures around the region, giving their specific locations. It is a "work in progress."
   Of the 1,000 cobblestone buildings remaining, approximately 90% are within 75 miles of Rochester, New York. But, if you have the chance to inspect a cobblestone in Chicago, Minneapolis, or wherever, be prepared to enjoy yourself because these beautiful buildings are a testimony to the ingenuity of our forefathers. 
  The Civil War generally marked the end of cobblestone construction in the northeast. Modern wood balloon framing was gaining in popularity. Modern bricks were being mass produced and Portland cement would dry much faster than natural lime mortar. A cobblestone building simply became too costly and time consuming to construct. 

   Residents of these historic buildings generally are pleased when their houses are admired from the exterior, but the right to privacy of the occupants should be respected when viewing these structures.

 Tentative List of Existing Cobblestone Structures by County
   
Albany -      3
Cayuga -     23
Chemung -  1
Chenango - 1
Cortland -   2
Genesee -   22
Herkimer - 6
Livingston - 21
Madison - 6
Monroe - 106
Montgomery - 1
Niagara - 47
Oneida - 5
Onondaga - 12
Ontario - 101
Orleans - 98
Oswego - 5
Otsego - 1
Saratoga - 1
Seneca - 20
Steuben - 2
Wayne - 170
Wyoming - 11
Yates - 9

Other known "true"  Cobblestone Buildings in North America

Canada - 14
Colorado - 1
Illinois - 2
Michigan - 43 
New Mexico - 1
Ohio - 1
Vermont - 3
Wisconsin - 36

Sunday, June 10, 2018

Cobblestone House in Ohio






The Chester Risley Howard house at 411 East Garfield Road, Aurora, may be the only cobblestone building in the state of Ohio. Howard was a prominent miller. In 1853 he razed an old frame house and mason M. Smith built this Gothic Revival style cobblestone house for Howard. It has two stories and three wings. The walls are 20 inches thick. It was placed on the National Register in 1974. The black and white photo was taken by Photographer Carl Waite for the Historic American Buildings Survey on June 19, 1936. 

Cobblestone House in New Mexico




The Moore-Ward house at 505 W. Richardson Ave., Artesia, New Mexico, was built soon after the town of Artesia was founded, in 1904. The unusual cobblestone fa├žade was placed by hand as part of the original construction, using stones from the nearby Penasco River that were hauled in on wagons. The stones were set in concrete starting from the bottom up—a couple of rows were laid at a time and then allowed to dry before the next rows were laid. The whole process took nearly two years, and no, we don’t know exactly how many stones were used! The house is on the New Mexico Register of Cultural Properties and the National Register of Historic Places, and has housed the Museum since 1970. It houses the Artesia Historical Museum and Arts Center.

Cobblestone in Colorado

           




This cobblestone house at 2900 South Estes Street in Lakewood, Colorado, was built between 1859 an 1864. The house is built of cobblestones gathered from Bear Creek with a few and roughly-dressed sandstones quarried from nearby. Its walls are 18 inches thick. It was renovated in 1976 and is used for social events. It is owned by the City of Lakewood and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places for Jefferson County, Colorado.

Cobblestone Buildings in Wisconsin

                                 Wisconsin

[Sources include: Wisconsin Historical Society, Burlington Historical Society and National Register of Historic Places applications; Wikipedia].


The Lathrop-Munn house at 524 Bluff St. in Beloit on the west side of Rock River was built about 1848 and is of Greek Revival style. It may have been built by local businessman John Hackett who sold the property to Frederick A. Lathrop in 1848. It was entered on the National Register in 1977. The walls are only one foot thick - suggesting the possibility of brick infill - with three or four courses of stones. Selection of color is more random on the south side, but here too stones are well matched for size and shape. The larger and more irregular stones were reserved for the north side. Throughout, they are set in rows in mortar which is raised in pronounced horizontal ridges between the courses of stones. Mortar bands also surround the buff limestone quoins and lintels. Rough-cut limestone was used for the foundations, water tables, and quoins; the heavy straight lintels were tooled to create a dotted texture. Additions do not seriously detract from the cobblestone fabric of the building. 
   Unfortunately, many cobblestone houses are falling to the wrecking ball or just disappearing through neglect. With high heating bills and expensive repairs, some people can no longer afford to maintain these structures. Development has also taken its toll on these once beautiful homes. 




                                    Sherry House, 530 Broad Street, Beloit.



Built in 1850 this house at 517 Prospect St., Beloit,  was occupied by the first president of Beloit College. It is a Wisconsin Landmark and one of the finest remaining examples of cobblestone architecture in the State of Wisconsin. It is owned and maintained by the Beloit Chapter of the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution. 


The Clark Brown House at 3457 Riverside Drive. Beloit, was built in 1847 of Greek Revival architecture. It was built by Chester Clark who came here from Marion, N.Y.  There were many "transplants" to this region from upstate New York.


This cobblestone house at 565 West State St. in Burlington was built in 1845 in the style of a cube as the home of Pliny Merritt Perkins. He was born in Trenton, New York and first settled within family in Joliet, Ill. before coming to Burlington in 1837. Over the years he became a prominent local industrialist. Three of the walls are coarse masonry, the front facade being cobblestone with brick quoins.

                  


Portion of front wall of Prasch house, 885 W. State St., Burlington. Note how cobblestones are graded from smallest at the bottom to largest at the top. [Burlington Historical Society.]



Three cobblestones - the Hammiller, Reuter and Burhans houses sit on Jefferson Street just east of the Hillside. The middle house has its gable end to the street; the other two are set parallel. Joseph Thering bought the house at the left from the Ephraim Perkins estate in 1851. Two German carpenters, John Heinrich Rueter and John Heinrich Burhans bought the center and right lots in 1851, gathered cobblestones while excavating the foundations, and completed their houses, which shared a common well on the lot line, in 1854. [ Burlington Historical Society.]


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“Buena Vista House,” originally a hotel, is located at 2090 North Church St., East Troy. It took three years to build and was completed in 1846 and designed by Samuel R. Bradley, a young mason who ran a hotel in Milwaukee with his wife before moving to East Troy. It was placed on the National Register in 1978 and the Wisconsin State Historical Register in 1989. It is the largest known cobblestone building in Wisconsin. Like most cobblestone buildings, this one is a vernacular interpretation of the Greek Revival style, with a broad cornice, granite and limestone quoins, and flat-arched limestone lintels. Originally, a one-story porch ran along the west (front) and wrapped around to the north side, but all that remains today are two smaller, pedimented porch roofs, supported by large brackets, on the front. The paired windows on the second floor, over the main entrance, show where a doorway once opened onto a covered balcony. The ground level has always housed a restaurant, but the interior has been altered repeatedly.



The Justin Weed house at 3509 Washington Road in Kenosha was built in 1848. It is Greek Revival architecture. It was placed on the National Register in 1974.





Commercial building, 125 W. Main St., Palmyra, Jefferson County, was built ca. 1845-48. It was built for a store and in 1874 became home to the Palmyra Enterprise. It was placed on the National Register in 1975.


                              P. R. Mygatt Farmstead, 5924 State Highway 83,
                              Racine  County. Built about 1850, Greek Revival.



This cobblestone house at W202 Highway 11, Spring Prairie, Walworth county was the farm residence of Lemuel R. and Melissa (Campbell) Smith, who he married about 1842. Their three children were born here. Lemuel was born in Hamilton, N.Y.,  a son of Revolutionary War veteran Aaron Smith He his son, Civil War veteran Edwin Ruthven Smith, gave President Abraham Lincoln and Secretary of State William H. Seward each a drink from his canteen when they visited Fort DeRussy. Union troops there had helped repel an attack on Fort Stevens (Washington, D. C.) by Confederate troops under Jubal Early. Lemuel was one of the first four settlers to claim land in the Burlington area. The Smith farm has been identified as a station for sheltering fugitive slaves on the Underground Railroad. Smith has also been identified as a "conductor" who picked up a freedom seeker in Waterford and transported him to a farm near the Smith farm. Lemuel held various offices in his township and was the first chairman of the Old Settlers' Society in Walworth County. Lemuel died in 1874.                                                                            [Burlington Historical Society]


                             Old photo of the Lemuel Smith House.
                             [Burlington Historical Society]



 The William T. Billings house is located on Little Prairie Road, Troy Township, Walworth county. It is of Greek Revival architecture of the 1840s period.



Jedediah Healy had this Greek Revival-style  cobblestone house at 34108 Oak Knoll Road in Burlington  built in 1858, according to the date stone. It is constructed of fieldstone with cobblestone veneer. A one-story addition was built later on the year. This  is known as the Franklyn Hazelo House.It was placed on the National Register in 1974. Healy and his family were early settlers in Racine county, arriving in 1841. Architectural historian Richard Perrin noted tis house is “perhaps the most curious piece of cobblestone masonry in Wisconsin. It is the unique treatment of the cobblestones that invites attention, since nothing quite it has thus far been turned up anywhere else.”

                          
                          
The Richardson-Brinkman house at 607 West Milwaukee Road, Clinton, was built in 1843 by Alonzo Richardson. It is of Greek Revival  design. Its walls are 16 to 18 inches thick.  It was placed on the National Register in 1977.



The Samuel J. Jones house on Milwaukee Road, east of Clinton,  was built in 1847. It is of Greek Revival  architecture. It was placed on the  National Register in 1978.




         


The Joel B. Roberts house at 1011 State St., Eau Clare, is of' "Gothic Revival” architecture. It was built in 1866 by Bradley C. Marcy, a stone mason who came from New York State. Additions were made in 1876 and 1916.  Stones were gathered from the nearby Eau Claire and Chippewa  rivers. Inner stones came from local quarries. It is believed to be the only cobblestone house in northwestern Wisconsin. It was listed on the National Register in 1974 and the Wisconsin State Register in 1989.
                             


The Hinkley house, Highway 67, Eagle, ( also known as the Cobblestone House) was part of a farm originally owned by A.R. (Ahira) and Mary Hinkley. A.R. Hinkley came to Wisconsin (before the territory was established as a state) in 1836 and bought the land from the government (specifically sold for homesteading purposes) for $2 per acre. Hinkley initially built a log house on the property and began clearing timber for farming. When the territory became a state in 1848, Hinkley began drafting plans for a new house. He built a house which included cobblestones he found on his land, sand from nearby Pretty Lake, and lime for the mortar which he made by burning limestone he found on the land. In fact, the majority of the materials used to build the house were taken from Hinkley’s land. Hinkley came to Eagle from New Hampshire. It is thought that his inspiration to build a cobblestone house came from those he had probably saw while traveling through western New York where the majority of cobblestone houses in the country originated. Hinkley was a predominantly a farmer, but also did dental work on the side. It is said he sometimes kept his dental tools with him while working in the fields, just in case a neighbor or another farmer had a toothache and needed assistance. He was a prominent citizen and worked to support the community in a positive way. Descendants of the Hinkley family lived in the house until 1912.



                                   Historic marker to house next to nearby road.
                  



                                     Miniature cobblestone house next to marker.
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The George Josiah Kellogg House, also known as “Belle Cottage, was located at 1837 Center Ave., Janesville, Rock county. It stood until 1987 when it was demolished, even though it had been placed on the National Register and the Wisconsin State Register of Historic Places. It was Gothic Revival architecture and was built in 1854 by Kellogg, a pioneer nurseryman.


                                 Meyerhofer Cobblestone House
                






The Meyerhofer cobblestone house is located on Townline Road east of Lake Geneva in the town of Lyons, Walworth county. It was  completed in 1850 of field stones  and is of Palladiun style after the 1500s Italian architect Andrea Palladio. It was built by Nikolaus Meyerhofer who came here from Germany about 1845 and purchased 160 acres for farming in 1847.  He had been a stone mason in Germany. The entrance to the house is constructed of brick with brick quoins.   Its appearance is particularly interesting with the segmental-arch doorway and the pediment. Later, a frame summer kitchen with gable roof was added.  and has been on the National Register since 1980 and the Wisconsin Register since 1989.
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                                      Ketchum House, Marquette




The Daniel and Catherine Ketchum cobblestone house at 147 East Second St., Marquette, Wisconsin, was built in 1851. It is one of the most significant landmarks in Marquette and is of the Greek Revival style. The architect was John Baldwin. It also has been known as the Lisa Michele house.


Colonel Orien Haseltine, of Andover, Vermont, came to Vernon  in 1838  following his sons, Orien Jr. and Curtis who came two years earlier to claim 400 acres.  The community of Vernon was named by Haseltine in honor of George Washington’s home, Mount Vernon.  In 1859 Hazeltine moved to south central Wisconsin. This house, built of fieldstone, is located at W230 S8235 Big Bend Drive. It was built with more than 10,000 cobblestones in 1842, according to the date stone centered above south gable window.  It was placed on the National Register in 1979. It has had many owners over the years.










The home of Edward and Elizabeth Dodge now is located at 126 E. Grand Ave., Port Washington in Ozaukee County was built in 1848 with later additions.   Stones were gathered from the shore of Lake Michigan.It is of Greek Revival architecture. It originally stood on on the south bank of Sauk Creek about 125 feet north of its present location. It was moved to its present site in 1935, when a porch was added. It now serves as the Port Washington Chamber of Commerce Tourism Center. It was placed on the National Register in 1975. [Photos by J.R. Manning].



The Horace Loomis house is located at N797 Highway 120, Spring Prairie Township, Walworth county. It was built in 1851 and is of Greek Revival architecture. It was placed on the National Register in 1974 and the State Register in 1989.



The Murray-George house, north side of P, Turtle Township, Rock 
County, was built in 1845. It is Greek Revival architecture. 



This house on Maple Drive in the village of Waterford, Racine county, was built in 1847 by English immigrant Matthew Blackburn on his 280-acre farm. The one-story wing once had a recessed porch with two columns, but has since been walled up with siding and a bay window. Cobbles are of various colors.


P. R. Mygett Farmhouse, 5924 State Highway 83, Waterford, Racine county, Wisconsin. Greek Revival architecture, built 1850.



The James Jesse Strang residence, 154 Highway 11, town of Voree, (meaning garden of peace and founded by Strang). He and his followers broke off from the main Mormon Church. In 1850 local pressure forced the colony to an island in upper Lake Michigan. There he was crowned “King James I,” but internal strife resulted in his being shot. He returned here and died in 1856.




The Martin House at S87 W23715 Edgewood Ave., Vernon Township,
Waukesha County, was built in 1859.

   
                               Cobblestone Buildings in Wisconsin

Structures listed as cobblestone buildings in Wisconsin (From the booklet, The Octagon House And The Cobblestone Building in Wisconsin by Virginia A. Palmer. Published by the University of Wisconsin, 1978). Those that are debatably of traditional cobblestone construction are marked with asterisks. A few extra note are added since this list is dated.

Bayfield County

*1. Town of Russell, Highway K Sunnyside Farm (1924). Built by John Gautsch and daughter using multi-colored stones from Lake Superior. Private residence.
2. 1011 State St., Eau Claire (1866). Built by Bradley Marcy, stonemason, with stones gathered from the Chippewa and Eau Claire rivers. Walls are 14 inches thick in this two-story structure. Wing added in 1876, stone garage built in 1916. Wisconsin Registered Landmark and the National Register of Historic Places. Private residence.

Jefferson County

3. 125 West Main Street, Palmyra (1845-1848), Two-story building with egg-shaped cobblestone used on the front - limestone trim, fieldstone sides, Originally built as a store. Palmyra Enterprise established here in 1874. Historic American Buildings Survey and National Register of Historic Buildings. Commercial use: real estate and insurance.

Kenosha County

4. 3509 Washington Road, Kenosha (1848- first story only, second story added 1869). A Greek Revival style house with two rows of gay stones alternating with four rows of white ones, brick quoins, wood trim, and a one and one-half story wing. National Register of Historic Places. Private residence.

Ozaukee County

5. 146 South Wisconsin Street, Port Washington (1848). Home of Edward Dodge, a blacksmith using stones gathered from Cedar Creek to form horizontal bands of stones alternating light and dark bands. House was moved 125 feet to the north in 1930 when the Wisconsin Electric Power Company acquired it as a gatehouse. National Register of Historic Places. Commercial use.

Racine County

6. Oak Knoll Road, SW from Highway D, Rochester (1858). Stones placed in box-like recesses formed by the intersection of vertical and horizontal V’s. Date stone is on the gable. Has a one-story wing, Narrow end of two-story section faces road. National Register of Historic Places, Private residence.
7. Maple Drive, .6 mile north of Highway D, Rochester (1847-1852). Building by Matthew Blackburn, farmer, this Greek Revival house is two stories with a one-story wing. Small cobblestones used on front, larger stones on sides. Private residence.
8. 5924 Highway 83 (c.1850). Stone Front Farm. This Greek Revival style house has two stories, with cobblestone front and fieldstone sides. Private residence.
*9. 5601 Highway 82, two miles south of Honey Creek Road (19th c.) Italianate, two-story house. Private residence.
10. 565 West State Street, Burlington (c.1845). Built by Pliny Perkins, farmer, this house has small cobblestones at the bottom, larger stones at the top, brick quoins. Private residence. 
*11. 200-202 West Jefferson Street, Burlington (1852-1854). Two and one-half story house with cobblestone front and fieldstone sides. Private residence. 
*12. 216 West Jefferson Street, Burlington (1852-1854). Two and one-half story house with cobblestone front and fieldstone sides. Private residence.
*13. 508 East Jefferson Street, Burlington (19th c.) One and one-half story ouse of cobblestone and fieldstone mixture. Private residence.

Rock County

14. 517 Prospect Street, Beloit (1850). Built by students of Beloit College under the direction of Chester Clark, stonemason, using stones collected from Turtle Creek, dark gray cobblestones with projecting mortar points. The completed house was sold and the proceeds given to Beloit College. A brick chimney and enclosed porch were added later. The house was donated to the Beloit Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution by Mrs. Rasey, its last owner. Wisconsin Registered Landmark and National Register of Historic Places. Open by appointment only.
15. 530 Broad Street, Beloit (1851). A hip-roofed cobblestone house almost obscured by commercial edition, wing added 1859. Private residence.
16. 548 Broad Street, Beloit (1851) Another hip-roofed cobblestone house obscured by commercial addition. Private residence.
17. 910 Broad Street, Beloit (c.1846) Chester Clark, stonemason, built a cobblestone house and barn used by first chairman of village of Beloit. The cobblestone house has been razed the barn still stands. Privately owned. (Note: Placed on National Register in 1983; removed in 2009. It appears it was demolished and replaced by a Walgreens drug store).
18.  Lathrop-Munn House, 524 Bluff Street, Beloit (c. 1848). House built by Chester Clark, stonemason National Register of Historic Places, 1977. Private residence.
19. 326-328 St. Lawrence Street, Beloit (19th c.). Cobblestone core with limestone and brick sections added later. Private residence.
20. Highway 51, Town of Beloit (c. 1845). Cobblestone on three sides, brick front, two stories have sloping wings. Private residence.
21. 607 Milwaukee Street, Clinton. Built by Alonzo Richardson in Greek Revival style, one and one-half stories with one-story wing. National Register of Historic Places. Private residence.
22. Samuel Jones House, Milwaukee Road east of  Clinton (19th c.) Private residence. National Register of Historic Places, 1978.
23. George Josiah Kellogg House (“Belle Cottage,”) 1837 Center Avenue, Janesville (1854). Steep roof with intersecting gables. George J. Kellogg, architect. Private residence. Demolished 1987.
24. Tiffany, La Prairie township (19th c.) Now whitewashed. Commercial use.
25. Highway P, one-quarter mile west of W. Turtle township (1840s) Greek Revival style. Private residence.

Walworth County

26. Cobblestone Inn, 2090 Church St., East Troy, formerly Buena Vista House (1848). Built by Samuel Bradley, this three-story house has granite and limestone quoins. National Register of Historic Places. Commercial use.
27. .3 miles south of Swoboda Road on Highway G (1851). Greek Revival Style building of two stories - one-story wing, inset porch. National Register of Historic Places.
28. .25 miles west of Highway J (19th c.) Two-story building with limestone quoins. Private residence.
29. .1 mile north of Highway A (old Highway 15) (19th c.). Two-story building with limestone quoins. Private residence.
30. No. 202 Highway 11, .1 mile west of bridge over White River (1846). Lower section built by Samuel Neff; completed by new owner William Aldrich, one and one-half stories with brick quoins. Private residence.
31. Highway 11, .5 miles west of Racine County Line (1846). Originally built s far as first floor window sills by Samuel Neff, the building was completed by William Aldrich. The house was one of several in the now vanished Mormon settlement of Voree. Private residence.

Wakesha County
32. W354 S7920 Highway 59, Eagle (1845). Built by Ahira Hinkley farmer, this two-story house has cobblestones laid in even rows separated by V joints. Stones are black, buff, red and tan cobblestones. Cobblestone quoins. Wisconsin Registered Landmark, Historic Buildings Survey, and National Register of Historic Places. Private residence.
33. S107 W25620 Highway 24, Vernon township (1848). Built by Jesse Smith as tavern and stagecoach inn, building is two and one-half stories with porch across front. Historic American Buildings Survey. Private residence.
34. S87 W23715 Edgewood Avenue, Vernon township (1839). House with large stones at the bottom and smaller stones at the top. Date stone. Private residence.
35. W230 S8235 Highway F and Artesian Avenue, Vernon township (1842). Built by Orin Hazeltine this two-story house has about 10,000 stones of uniform size and shape. About 40 stones are in each full length row on the ends of the house. Cobblestones used as veneer for fieldstone underneath, larger stones used for quoins. Private residence.
36. 586 W24360 Edgewood Avenue, Vernon township (1862). Two-story house with cobblestone front and fieldstone sides has limestone quoins and three chimneys. Private residence.