Sunday, June 10, 2018

Cobblestone House in Ohio






The Chester Risley Howard house at 411 East Garfield Road, Aurora, may be the only cobblestone building in the state of Ohio. Howard was a prominent miller. In 1853 he razed an old frame house and mason M. Smith built this Gothic Revival style cobblestone house for Howard. It has two stories and three wings. The walls are 20 inches thick. It was placed on the National Register in 1974. The black and white photo was taken by Photographer Carl Waite for the Historic American Buildings Survey on June 19, 1936. 

Cobblestone House in New Mexico




The Moore-Ward house at 505 W. Richardson Ave., Artesia, New Mexico, was built soon after the town of Artesia was founded, in 1904. The unusual cobblestone fa├žade was placed by hand as part of the original construction, using stones from the nearby Penasco River that were hauled in on wagons. The stones were set in concrete starting from the bottom up—a couple of rows were laid at a time and then allowed to dry before the next rows were laid. The whole process took nearly two years, and no, we don’t know exactly how many stones were used! The house is on the New Mexico Register of Cultural Properties and the National Register of Historic Places, and has housed the Museum since 1970. It houses the Artesia Historical Museum and Arts Center.

Cobblestone in Colorado

           



This cobblestone house at 2900 South Estes Street in Lakewood, Colorado, was built between 1859 an 1864. The house is built of cobblestones gathered from Bear Creek with a few and roughly-dressed sandstones quarried from nearby. Its walls 18 inches thick It was renovated in 1976 and is used for social events. It is owned by the City of Lakewood and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places for Jefferson County, Colorado.

Cobblestone Buildings in Wisconsin

                                 Wisconsin

[Sources include: Wisconsin Historical Society, Burlington Historical Society and National Register of Historic Places applications; Wikipedia].


The Lathrop-Munn house at 524 Bluff St. in Beloit on the west side of Rock River was built about 1848 and is of Greek Revival style. It may have been built by local businessman John Hackett who sold the property to Frederick A. Lathrop in 1848. It was entered on the National Register in 1977. The walls are only one foot thick - suggesting the possibility of brick infill - with three or four courses of stones. Selection of color is more random on the south side, but here too stones are well matched for size and shape. The larger and more irregular stones were reserved for the north side. Throughout, they are set in rows in mortar which is raised in pronounced horizontal ridges between the courses of stones. Mortar bands also surround the buff limestone quoins and lintels. Rough-cut limestone was used for the foundations, water tables, and quoins; the heavy straight lintels were tooled to create a dotted texture. Additions do not seriously detract from the cobblestone fabric of the building. 
   Unfortunately, many cobblestone houses are falling to the wrecking ball or just disappearing through neglect. With high heating bills and expensive repairs, some people can no longer afford to maintain these structures. Development has also taken its toll on these once beautiful homes. 




                                    Sherry House, 530 Broad Street, Beloit.



Built in 1850 this house at 517 Prospect St., Beloit,  was occupied by the first president of Beloit College. It is a Wisconsin Landmark and one of the finest remaining examples of cobblestone architecture in the State of Wisconsin. It is owned and maintained by the Beloit Chapter of the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution. 


The Clark Brown House at 3457 Riverside Drive. Beloit, was built in 1847 of Greek Revival architecture. It was built by Chester Clark who came here from Marion, N.Y.  There were many "transplants" to this region from upstate New York.


This cobblestone house at 565 West State St. in Burlington was built in 1845 in the style of a cube as the home of Pliny Merritt Perkins. He was born in Trenton, New York and first settled within family in Joliet, Ill. before coming to Burlington in 1837. Over the years he became a prominent local industrialist. Three of the walls are coarse masonry, the front facade being cobblestone with brick quoins.

                  


Portion of front wall of Prasch house, 885 W. State St., Burlington. Note how cobblestones are graded from smallest at the bottom to largest at the top. [Burlington Historical Society.]



Three cobblestones - the Hammiller, Reuter and Burhans houses sit on Jefferson Street just east of the Hillside. The middle house has its gable end to the street; the other two are set parallel. Joseph Thering bought the house at the left from the Ephraim Perkins estate in 1851. Two German carpenters, John Heinrich Rueter and John Heinrich Burhans bought the center and right lots in 1851, gathered cobblestones while excavating the foundations, and completed their houses, which shared a common well on the lot line, in 1854. [ Burlington Historical Society.]


__________


“Buena Vista House,” originally a hotel, is located at 2090 North Church St., East Troy. It took three years to build and was completed in 1846 and designed by Samuel R. Bradley, a young mason who ran a hotel in Milwaukee with his wife before moving to East Troy. It was placed on the National Register in 1978 and the Wisconsin State Historical Register in 1989. It is the largest known cobblestone building in Wisconsin. Like most cobblestone buildings, this one is a vernacular interpretation of the Greek Revival style, with a broad cornice, granite and limestone quoins, and flat-arched limestone lintels. Originally, a one-story porch ran along the west (front) and wrapped around to the north side, but all that remains today are two smaller, pedimented porch roofs, supported by large brackets, on the front. The paired windows on the second floor, over the main entrance, show where a doorway once opened onto a covered balcony. The ground level has always housed a restaurant, but the interior has been altered repeatedly.



The Justin Weed house at 3509 Washington Road in Kenosha was built in 1848. It is Greek Revival architecture. It was placed on the National Register in 1974.





Commercial building, 125 W. Main St., Palmyra, Jefferson County, was built ca. 1845-48. It was built for a store and in 1874 became home to the Palmyra Enterprise. It was placed on the National Register in 1975.


                              P. R. Mygatt Farmstead, 5924 State Highway 83,
                              Racine  County. Built about 1850, Greek Revival.



This cobblestone house at W202 Highway 11, Spring Prairie, Walworth county was the farm residence of Lemuel R. and Melissa (Campbell) Smith, who he married about 1842. Their three children were born here. Lemuel was born in Hamilton, N.Y.,  a son of Revolutionary War veteran Aaron Smith He his son, Civil War veteran Edwin Ruthven Smith, gave President Abraham Lincoln and Secretary of State William H. Seward each a drink from his canteen when they visited Fort DeRussy. Union troops there had helped repel an attack on Fort Stevens (Washington, D. C.) by Confederate troops under Jubal Early. Lemuel was one of the first four settlers to claim land in the Burlington area. The Smith farm has been identified as a station for sheltering fugitive slaves on the Underground Railroad. Smith has also been identified as a "conductor" who picked up a freedom seeker in Waterford and transported him to a farm near the Smith farm. Lemuel held various offices in his township and was the first chairman of the Old Settlers' Society in Walworth County. Lemuel died in 1874.                                                                            [Burlington Historical Society]


                             Old photo of the Lemuel Smith House.
                             [Burlington Historical Society]



 The William T. Billings house is located on Little Prairie Road, Troy Township, Walworth county. It is of Greek Revival architecture of the 1840s period.



Jedediah Healy had this Greek Revival-style  cobblestone house at 34108 Oak Knoll Road in Burlington  built in 1858, according to the date stone. It is constructed of fieldstone with cobblestone veneer. A one-story addition was built later on the year. This  is known as the Franklyn Hazelo House.It was placed on the National Register in 1974. Healy and his family were early settlers in Racine county, arriving in 1841. Architectural historian Richard Perrin noted tis house is “perhaps the most curious piece of cobblestone masonry in Wisconsin. It is the unique treatment of the cobblestones that invites attention, since nothing quite it has thus far been turned up anywhere else.”

                          
                          
The Richardson-Brinkman house at 607 West Milwaukee Road, Clinton, was built in 1843 by Alonzo Richardson. It is of Greek Revival  design. Its walls are 16 to 18 inches thick.  It was placed on the National Register in 1977.



The Samuel J. Jones house on Milwaukee Road, east of Clinton,  was built in 1847. It is of Greek Revival  architecture. It was placed on the  National Register in 1978.




         


The Joel B. Roberts house at 1011 State St., Eau Clare, is of' "Gothic Revival” architecture. It was built in 1866 by Bradley C. Marcy, a stone mason who came from New York State. Additions were made in 1876 and 1916.  Stones were gathered from the nearby Eau Claire and Chippewa  rivers. Inner stones came from local quarries. It is believed to be the only cobblestone house in northwestern Wisconsin. It was listed on the National Register in 1974 and the Wisconsin State Register in 1989.
                             


The Hinkley house, Highway 67, Eagle, ( also known as the Cobblestone House) was part of a farm originally owned by A.R. (Ahira) and Mary Hinkley. A.R. Hinkley came to Wisconsin (before the territory was established as a state) in 1836 and bought the land from the government (specifically sold for homesteading purposes) for $2 per acre. Hinkley initially built a log house on the property and began clearing timber for farming. When the territory became a state in 1848, Hinkley began drafting plans for a new house. He built a house which included cobblestones he found on his land, sand from nearby Pretty Lake, and lime for the mortar which he made by burning limestone he found on the land. In fact, the majority of the materials used to build the house were taken from Hinkley’s land. Hinkley came to Eagle from New Hampshire. It is thought that his inspiration to build a cobblestone house came from those he had probably saw while traveling through western New York where the majority of cobblestone houses in the country originated. Hinkley was a predominantly a farmer, but also did dental work on the side. It is said he sometimes kept his dental tools with him while working in the fields, just in case a neighbor or another farmer had a toothache and needed assistance. He was a prominent citizen and worked to support the community in a positive way. Descendants of the Hinkley family lived in the house until 1912.



                                   Historic marker to house next to nearby road.
                  



                                     Miniature cobblestone house next to marker.
                                                              _______




The George Josiah Kellogg House, also known as “Belle Cottage, was located at 1837 Center Ave., Janesville, Rock county. It stood until 1987 when it was demolished, even though it had been placed on the National Register and the Wisconsin State Register of Historic Places. It was Gothic Revival architecture and was built in 1854 by Kellogg, a pioneer nurseryman.


                                 Meyerhofer Cobblestone House
                






The Meyerhofer cobblestone house is located on Townline Road east of Lake Geneva in the town of Lyons, Walworth county. It was  completed in 1850 of field stones  and is of Palladiun style after the 1500s Italian architect Andrea Palladio. It was built by Nikolaus Meyerhofer who came here from Germany about 1845 and purchased 160 acres for farming in 1847.  He had been a stone mason in Germany. The entrance to the house is constructed of brick with brick quoins.   Its appearance is particularly interesting with the segmental-arch doorway and the pediment. Later, a frame summer kitchen with gable roof was added.  and has been on the National Register since 1980 and the Wisconsin Register since 1989.
                                                _______

                                      Ketchum House, Marquette




The Daniel and Catherine Ketchum cobblestone house at 147 East Second St., Marquette, Wisconsin, was built in 1851. It is one of the most significant landmarks in Marquette and is of the Greek Revival style. The architect was John Baldwin. It also has been known as the Lisa Michele house.


Colonel Orien Haseltine, of Andover, Vermont, came to Vernon  in 1838  following his sons, Orien Jr. and Curtis who came two years earlier to claim 400 acres.  The community of Vernon was named by Haseltine in honor of George Washington’s home, Mount Vernon.  In 1859 Hazeltine moved to south central Wisconsin. This house, built of fieldstone, is located at W230 S8235 Big Bend Drive. It was built with more than 10,000 cobblestones in 1842, according to the date stone centered above south gable window.  It was placed on the National Register in 1979. It has had many owners over the years.










The home of Edward and Elizabeth Dodge now is located at 126 E. Grand Ave., Port Washington in Ozaukee County was built in 1848 with later additions.   Stones were gathered from the shore of Lake Michigan.It is of Greek Revival architecture. It originally stood on on the south bank of Sauk Creek about 125 feet north of its present location. It was moved to its present site in 1935, when a porch was added. It now serves as the Port Washington Chamber of Commerce Tourism Center. It was placed on the National Register in 1975. [Photos by J.R. Manning].



The Horace Loomis house is located at N797 Highway 120, Spring Prairie Township, Walworth county. It was built in 1851 and is of Greek Revival architecture. It was placed on the National Register in 1974 and the State Register in 1989.



The Murray-George house, north side of P, Turtle Township, Rock 
County, was built in 1845. It is Greek Revival architecture. 



This house on Maple Drive in the village of Waterford, Racine county, was built in 1847 by English immigrant Matthew Blackburn on his 280-acre farm. The one-story wing once had a recessed porch with two columns, but has since been walled up with siding and a bay window. Cobbles are of various colors.


P. R. Mygett Farmhouse, 5924 State Highway 83, Waterford, Racine county, Wisconsin. Greek Revival architecture, built 1850.



The James Jesse Strang residence, 154 Highway 11, town of Voree, (meaning garden of peace and founded by Strang). He and his followers broke off from the main Mormon Church. In 1850 local pressure forced the colony to an island in upper Lake Michigan. There he was crowned “King James I,” but internal strife resulted in his being shot. He returned here and died in 1856.




The Martin House at S87 W23715 Edgewood Ave., Vernon Township,
Waukesha County, was built in 1859.

   
                               Cobblestone Buildings in Wisconsin

Structures listed as cobblestone buildings in Wisconsin (From the booklet, The Octagon House And The Cobblestone Building in Wisconsin by Virginia A. Palmer. Published by the University of Wisconsin, 1978). Those that are debatably of traditional cobblestone construction are marked with asterisks. A few extra note are added since this list is dated.

Bayfield County

*1. Town of Russell, Highway K Sunnyside Farm (1924). Built by John Gautsch and daughter using multi-colored stones from Lake Superior. Private residence.
2. 1011 State St., Eau Claire (1866). Built by Bradley Marcy, stonemason, with stones gathered from the Chippewa and Eau Claire rivers. Walls are 14 inches thick in this two-story structure. Wing added in 1876, stone garage built in 1916. Wisconsin Registered Landmark and the National Register of Historic Places. Private residence.

Jefferson County

3. 125 West Main Street, Palmyra (1845-1848), Two-story building with egg-shaped cobblestone used on the front - limestone trim, fieldstone sides, Originally built as a store. Palmyra Enterprise established here in 1874. Historic American Buildings Survey and National Register of Historic Buildings. Commercial use: real estate and insurance.

Kenosha County

4. 3509 Washington Road, Kenosha (1848- first story only, second story added 1869). A Greek Revival style house with two rows of gay stones alternating with four rows of white ones, brick quoins, wood trim, and a one and one-half story wing. National Register of Historic Places. Private residence.

Ozaukee County

5. 146 South Wisconsin Street, Port Washington (1848). Home of Edward Dodge, a blacksmith using stones gathered from Cedar Creek to form horizontal bands of stones alternating light and dark bands. House was moved 125 feet to the north in 1930 when the Wisconsin Electric Power Company acquired it as a gatehouse. National Register of Historic Places. Commercial use.

Racine County

6. Oak Knoll Road, SW from Highway D, Rochester (1858). Stones placed in box-like recesses formed by the intersection of vertical and horizontal V’s. Date stone is on the gable. Has a one-story wing, Narrow end of two-story section faces road. National Register of Historic Places, Private residence.
7. Maple Drive, .6 mile north of Highway D, Rochester (1847-1852). Building by Matthew Blackburn, farmer, this Greek Revival house is two stories with a one-story wing. Small cobblestones used on front, larger stones on sides. Private residence.
8. 5924 Highway 83 (c.1850). Stone Front Farm. This Greek Revival style house has two stories, with cobblestone front and fieldstone sides. Private residence.
*9. 5601 Highway 82, two miles south of Honey Creek Road (19th c.) Italianate, two-story house. Private residence.
10. 565 West State Street, Burlington (c.1845). Built by Pliny Perkins, farmer, this house has small cobblestones at the bottom, larger stones at the top, brick quoins. Private residence. 
*11. 200-202 West Jefferson Street, Burlington (1852-1854). Two and one-half story house with cobblestone front and fieldstone sides. Private residence. 
*12. 216 West Jefferson Street, Burlington (1852-1854). Two and one-half story house with cobblestone front and fieldstone sides. Private residence.
*13. 508 East Jefferson Street, Burlington (19th c.) One and one-half story ouse of cobblestone and fieldstone mixture. Private residence.

Rock County

14. 517 Prospect Street, Beloit (1850). Built by students of Beloit College under the direction of Chester Clark, stonemason, using stones collected from Turtle Creek, dark gray cobblestones with projecting mortar points. The completed house was sold and the proceeds given to Beloit College. A brick chimney and enclosed porch were added later. The house was donated to the Beloit Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution by Mrs. Rasey, its last owner. Wisconsin Registered Landmark and National Register of Historic Places. Open by appointment only.
15. 530 Broad Street, Beloit (1851). A hip-roofed cobblestone house almost obscured by commercial edition, wing added 1859. Private residence.
16. 548 Broad Street, Beloit (1851) Another hip-roofed cobblestone house obscured by commercial addition. Private residence.
17. 910 Broad Street, Beloit (c.1846) Chester Clark, stonemason, built a cobblestone house and barn used by first chairman of village of Beloit. The cobblestone house has been razed the barn still stands. Privately owned. (Note: Placed on National Register in 1983; removed in 2009. It appears it was demolished and replaced by a Walgreens drug store).
18.  Lathrop-Munn House, 524 Bluff Street, Beloit (c. 1848). House built by Chester Clark, stonemason National Register of Historic Places, 1977. Private residence.
19. 326-328 St. Lawrence Street, Beloit (19th c.). Cobblestone core with limestone and brick sections added later. Private residence.
20. Highway 51, Town of Beloit (c. 1845). Cobblestone on three sides, brick front, two stories have sloping wings. Private residence.
21. 607 Milwaukee Street, Clinton. Built by Alonzo Richardson in Greek Revival style, one and one-half stories with one-story wing. National Register of Historic Places. Private residence.
22. Samuel Jones House, Milwaukee Road east of  Clinton (19th c.) Private residence. National Register of Historic Places, 1978.
23. George Josiah Kellogg House (“Belle Cottage,”) 1837 Center Avenue, Janesville (1854). Steep roof with intersecting gables. George J. Kellogg, architect. Private residence. Demolished 1987.
24. Tiffany, La Prairie township (19th c.) Now whitewashed. Commercial use.
25. Highway P, one-quarter mile west of W. Turtle township (1840s) Greek Revival style. Private residence.

Walworth County

26. Cobblestone Inn, 2090 Church St., East Troy, formerly Buena Vista House (1848). Built by Samuel Bradley, this three-story house has granite and limestone quoins. National Register of Historic Places. Commercial use.
27. .3 miles south of Swoboda Road on Highway G (1851). Greek Revival Style building of two stories - one-story wing, inset porch. National Register of Historic Places.
28. .25 miles west of Highway J (19th c.) Two-story building with limestone quoins. Private residence.
29. .1 mile north of Highway A (old Highway 15) (19th c.). Two-story building with limestone quoins. Private residence.
30. No. 202 Highway 11, .1 mile west of bridge over White River (1846). Lower section built by Samuel Neff; completed by new owner William Aldrich, one and one-half stories with brick quoins. Private residence.
31. Highway 11, .5 miles west of Racine County Line (1846). Originally built s far as first floor window sills by Samuel Neff, the building was completed by William Aldrich. The house was one of several in the now vanished Mormon settlement of Voree. Private residence.

Wakesha County
32. W354 S7920 Highway 59, Eagle (1845). Built by Ahira Hinkley farmer, this two-story house has cobblestones laid in even rows separated by V joints. Stones are black, buff, red and tan cobblestones. Cobblestone quoins. Wisconsin Registered Landmark, Historic Buildings Survey, and National Register of Historic Places. Private residence.
33. S107 W25620 Highway 24, Vernon township (1848). Built by Jesse Smith as tavern and stagecoach inn, building is two and one-half stories with porch across front. Historic American Buildings Survey. Private residence.
34. S87 W23715 Edgewood Avenue, Vernon township (1839). House with large stones at the bottom and smaller stones at the top. Date stone. Private residence.
35. W230 S8235 Highway F and Artesian Avenue, Vernon township (1842). Built by Orin Hazeltine this two-story house has about 10,000 stones of uniform size and shape. About 40 stones are in each full length row on the ends of the house. Cobblestones used as veneer for fieldstone underneath, larger stones used for quoins. Private residence.
36. 586 W24360 Edgewood Avenue, Vernon township (1862). Two-story house with cobblestone front and fieldstone sides has limestone quoins and three chimneys. Private residence.


Cobblestone Buildings in Vermont



                                   


This house at 47 Main Street in North Bennington, Vt. was built in 1848 by Warren Whitney Dutcher, co-inventor of the “Dutcher Temple,” a mechanism used in the manufacture of textiles. The house was auctioned off for $1 a chance. Dutcher never lived there. He and his family moved to Hopedale, Mass. in 1856. At that time the Colvin family lived there. This is of “Gothic Cottage” architecture popularized in the late 1840s and the 1850s.  The looping verge board is a decorative tradition that comes out of late mediaeval southeastern England, a tradition that was much enhanced in the U.S. after the 1840s. (P. 9, History of North Bennington, Vermont by Herbert. Stebbins Walbridge, 1937).
Photo and information courtesy of  Jane Griswold Radocchia.



                                          Warren Whitney Dutcher


This cobblestone school house is located at 1363 North Bennington Road, Bennington in an area called Paper Mill Village. Built about 1840, it was known as School District No. 10. It is now a private residence.
Photo courtesy of  Jane Griswold Radocchia.

                              Western-most Cobblestone House in the U.S.


                 This is a current photograph of the same building.

                      Photo courtesy of Jane Griswold Radocchia

      
                               Eastern-most Cobblestone House in the U.S.





    The Winslow-Ward House at 12 Canal Street, Brattleboro, dates to about 1860.  It has been an apartment house owned by the Windham Housing Trust since 1995 and is part of the Canal Street-Clark Street Neighborhood Historic District.  It is a very plain vernacular Neo-Classic architecture.  It was built about 1850 of quartzite cobbles apparently collected from nearby Whetstone Brook. In the 1960s it was owned by Linus Edmunds.
    Cobblestones vary from  1-1/2 to 2-1/2” high and the courses are 2-1/2 to 3-1/2” high from center to center of joints.  Quoins are roughly cut gray granite blocks about 3-5” high, 10” long and 4 or 5” thick.  Sometimes a course of large cobblestones correspond to one quoin height, and sometimes two courses of small cobblestones take up one quoin height.  The 5” thick window sills and 8” high lintels are also of gray granite.
   On both the front and rear gable ends the builder enclosed in a thin wood frame two courses of cobblestones that extend diagonally up to the roof line to the ridge to resemble verde boards. Projecting cornices on the gables are covered with two rows of cobbles, an unusual feature. Sills, lintels and quoins are rough granite.